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This course covers the components of hydro electric power stations. Hydraulic principles are also reviewed as an aid to better understanding of hydro plant operation. The following topics are included:

• Factors affecting the power output of a water wheel or hydro turbine, i.e. Q x Hx efficiency

• Environmental concerns in design and operation of hydro schemes

• The function of major items of equipment including: 1. Intake structure and head works 2. Penstocks, surge tanks, and turbine shut-off valve 3. Impulse and reaction turbines 4. Turbine control system 5. The rotating element consisting of turbine runner coupled to the generator rotor 6. Thrust bearings, guide bearings, and associated lubricating systems 7. The generator’s exciter, excitation panels, and voltage regulator 8. The generator stator, cooling radiators, and bus discharge duct 9. Generator step-up transformer, breaker and associated controls 10. The plant main control room and local control panels 11. Auxiliary transformers and auxiliary bus 12. Pumps and piping for auxiliary systems, including compressed air, dewatering, and fire protection

• Example calculations of hydro power output for different conditions, i.e. flow and head

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