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The objective of this course is to discuss the characteristics of different types of faults, and their effects on the power system. Knowledge of this material is vital to understanding protective schemes. After study of this coursework, participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts:

• Effect of load impedance on current flow

• Effect of short circuit impedance on fault current

• Voltage drop through the system under fault conditions

• Impedance phase angle

• Delta system grounding transformer

• Ungrounded systems – hazards & ground fault detection

• Phasor diagrams for different types of faults

• Resonance & Ferroresonance

• Production of positive, negative, and zero sequence components

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